Hmong (Miao)

Geographical Distribution

The Hmong number around 8.6 million worldwide.

China: 7,600,000
Laos: 450,000
Vietnam: 558,000
Thailand: 124,000
USA: 300,000
and in France, Canada, Argentina and Guyana

Distribution in China: Guizhou Province – 52% Hunan Province – 15% Yunnan Province – 15% Sichuan,
Guangxi and Hubei Provinces – 17%

Religion

The Hmong are animists or spirit worshippers. They believe that the spirit world touches every aspect of life. Spirits can be benevolent or mischievous, protecting or bringing harm to men, beasts and crops. Every household has an altar, where protection of the household is sought. Elaborate rituals and sacrifices are made.

Language

The Hmong belong to the Hmong-Mien group in the Astro-Thai language family. The terms Hmong and Miao are often used interchangeably. The Hmong number about 35 distinct dialects. Many of which are not mutually understandable.

The Mekong Hmong team is targeting the Far Western group of Hmong which consists of 3 million people.

The Far Western Hmong can be divided into eight groups that speak a mutually related language with many related sub dialects.

White Hmong, Blue Hmong, Black Hmong, Northern Hmong, Horned Hmong, Sinicized Hmong, Small Flowery Miao, Big Flowery Miao.

Mission, Objectives and Strategy

Mission: To facilitate a biblical and indigenous church-planting movement among the Far Western Hmong throughout Southeast Asia.

Objectives: To mobilize God’s resources globally for the purpose of pioneering new unreached areas and groups of the Far Western Hmong.

Strategy: Form teams of uniquely gifted people:- linguists, church planters, theological educators, rural development, computers and telecommunications.

Horned Hmong

Other Names
Bai Miao, White Miao, Jiaojiao Miao, Qing Miao, ForestMiao, Hmong Vrong, Changjiao Miao, Longhorn Miao.

Location
Guizhou (Guiyang, Zhijin, Qingzhen, Dafang, Bijie,Zhenxiong).

Language Affiliation

Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Population
China 60,000.

Christianity
Praise the Lord for the dramatic growth of the Church from when this work began in 2004. There are signs of a movement taking place. Leaders have been trained who are making major efforts to reach all 550 villages with the gospel and churches planted in the next 3 years. Many of the Horned Hmong are illiterate. No Bible portions in their dialect.

Need
– Bible portions in both oral and written forms.

-more training of local leaders and evangelists.

-Evangelistic and training materials in audio form.

White Hmong

Other Names
White Hmong, White Meo, White Miao, Bai Miao, Meo Kao, Meo Do, Red Hmong, Mong Do, Mong Trang, Hmong Qua Mpa, Striped arm Hmong, Striped Hmong.

Location
Guizhou (Ceheng, Anlong), Guangxi (Longlin, Napo), Yunnan (Shizong, Wenshan, Yanshan, Qiubei, Manguan, Malipo, Guangnan, Funing, Xichou, Mengzi, Kaiyuan, Pingbian, Jinping, Hekou, Mengla).

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Far western.

Population
Thailand 60,000; Laos 150,000; Vietnam 230,000; China 220,000; USA 100,000(?); also French Guiana, France, Canada, Australia.

Christianity
There are many Christians in Thailand, Laos, the U.S. and Vietnam, but few in China. The White Hmong have the Bible in their language, as well as the Jesus film, written and audio teaching materials, dictionaries and language learning materials. Their literacy is good. FEBC has a White Hmong radio broadcast.

Needs

-Partnership with the White Hmong Church to pioneer new unreached areas.
-Literacy training to be able to use existing materials.
-Leadership training to strengthen existing churches. Agricultural development projects.

-Revival among the older churches.

Blue Hmong

Other Names
Mong Leng, Mong Lenh, Mong Ntsua, Hmong Njua, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Mong Hoa, Flowery Meo, Variegated Mong, Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Mong Shi, Mong Si, Meo Do, Red Mong, Mong La, Paddyfield Miao, Meo Den, Black Mong, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong La Hou, Red-headed Hmong, Hmong Dle Ncha, Qingshui Miao, Clearwater Miao, Chuanqiandian Miao

Location
Guizhou (Ceheng), Guangxi (Longlin), Yunnan (Wenshan, Yanshan, Qiubei, Maguan, Malipo, Guangnan, Funing, Xichou, Mengzi, Kaiyuan, Pingbian, Jinping, Hekou).

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Population
Thailand 64,000; Laos 150,000; Vietnam 260,000; China 235,000; Burma 5,000(?); U.S.A. 100,000(?); also French Guiana, France, Canada, Australia.

Christianity
There are many Christians in Thailand, Laos, the U.S. and Vietnam, but very few in China. This group has Bible portions in their language as well as the New Testament but not the whole Bible. The Jesus film is also available. Their literacy is good. The Chronological teaching in Blue Hmong is available on radio.

Needs
-Partnership with the Hmong Church to pioneer new areas.

-Revival among the older churches.
-Agricultural development projects.

Black Hmong

Other Names
Chuan Miao, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Flowery Miao, Bai Miao, White Miao, Hmong Den, Hmong Be, Hmong Bua, Hmong Sou, Hmong Ndrou, Hmong Dou, Hmong Leng, Hmong Si, Dananshan Miao, Chuanqiandian Miao.

Location
Sichuan (Gulin, Xuyong, Xingwen, Gongxian, Gaoxian, Changning, Muli), Guizhou (Jinsha, Chishui, Xishui, Renhuai, Xifeng, Fuquan, Bijie, Qianxi, Dafang, Puding, Pu’an, Ziyun, Panxian), Yunnan (Wenshan, Mengzi, Kaiyuan, Pingbian, Jinping, Yuanyang, Gejiu, Mile, Huaning, Mengla).

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Population
Vietnam 68,000; China 535,000; Burma 5,000 (?).

Christianity
There are only a few Christians but we’ve seen major advances in the past few years. They have some portions of Scripture in their language. They do not have the Jesus Film. Chronological Bible Teaching by radio was introduced 4 years ago. Leadership training is ongoing.
Needs
-Pioneer a new work among these people and strengthen the few believers.

– A Chinese couple to act as Team Leaders.
-New written materials.
-Leadership training, especially in areas with false cults.
-Literacy training.

Northern Hmong

Other Names
Hmong Xao, Hmong Sao, Hmong Nraug, Hmong Du.

Location
SW China and NW Vietnam

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Populations
China: 250,000; Vietnam: 100,000.

Christianity
There is little if any Christian witness among this Hmong group.

Needs
Pioneer a new work among these people and strengthen any believers among them.

-A Chinese couple to lead this team effort.
-Linguists.
-Radio programming.
-Jesus Film and other evangelistic materials.

Sinicised Miao

Other Names
Hmong Shua, Hmong Sa, Hmong Sua, Hmong Nzi, Han Miao, Sinicised Hmong, Man Mong, Waishu Miao, Lopsided comb Miao, Biantou Miao, Flatheaded Miao, Mushu Miao, Wooden comb Miao, Shuixi Miao, Hua Miao, Flowery Miao, Water Miao, Changshu Miao, Longcomb Miao.

Location
Guizhou (Zhijin, Dafang, Qianxi, Puding, Anshun, Ziyun, Zhenning, Guanling, Qinglong, Pu’an, Xingren, Anlong), Yunnan (Wenshan, Jinping).

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Population
China 250,000; Vietnam, a few thousand.

Christianity
We’ve recently discovered many more Christians/churches, among this group. The Jesus Film has been completed and is currently being distributed. A Bible translation project is currently underway. Some biblical stories have been put into audio form.

Needs
-Revival among the leadership and Churches.
-Renew leadership training for the Christian remnant in this group.
-Audio materials in Sinicised Hmong.
-Written materials.
-Literacy training.

Gha-Mu

Location
Guizhou (Hezhang, Nayong, Shuicheng, Zhenning).

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Population
China 84,000.

Christianity
There are many Christians (up to30%) due to a history of missionary activity. They have access to audio materials, and there may be some Bible portions available, but they do not have the whole Bible and the vast majority of Gha-Mu are illiterate in Hmong.

Other Names
Xiaohua Miao, Hsiaohwa Miao, Small Flowery Miao, Hua Miao, Flowery Miao.

Needs
-Partnership with existing Church to strengthen local believers and mobilize foroutreach to other dialects of Hmong.
-NT and OT translation. Other written and oral teaching aids. Literacy programs.
-Relief aid (probably water projects).
-Leadership training.
-A Chinese couple to lead the team effort.

A-Hmao

Location
Guizhou (Weining, Hezhang, Zhenning, Ziyun, Zhijin), Yunnan (Yiliang, Daguan, Zhaotong, Yongshan, Suijiang, Qiaojia, Wuding, Lufeng, Luquan, Chuxiong, Kunming, Anning, Qujing, Xundian, Xuanwei).

Language Affiliation
Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Western Hmongic, Farwestern.

Population
China 300,000.

Christianity
Up to50% of the A-Hmao are at least nominally Christian due to missionary activity at the turn of the century. They are literate and have the New Testament and Bible portions available, as well as audio materials. The Jesus Film was recently completed and is being distributed.

Other Names
Big Flowery Miao, Da Hua Miao, Ta Hwa Miao, Great Flowery Tribe, Hua Miao, Flowery Miao, Huabei, Diandongbei Miao, Northeast Dian Miao.

Needs
-Partnership with existing Church to strengthen believers.
-Revival among the Churches.
-OT translation and NT revision.
-Other written teaching aids.
-Material relief, water projects, leadership training.
-Mobilize for outreach to other dialects of Hmong.